Project Management and Evaluation

Written by Friday, 28 September 2018 16:29

You are required to develop a charter for the Project including:

Include the Project description and overview you developed as part of Assessment 2.

Part One:
MOV - Measurable Organisational Value
(This is the goal of the project and is utilised to define the value that your team project will bring to your client)
•Identify the desired area of impact - Rank the following areas in terms of importance: Strategy / Customer / Financial / Operational / Social
•With reference to your project, identify one or two of the following types of value:

  • Better - is improving quality important to your client?
  • Faster - does your client want to increase efficiency?
  • Cheaper - is cutting costs important?
  • Do more - does your client want to continue its growth?

•Develop an appropriate metric - this sets the target and expectation of all the stakeholders. It is important to determine a quantitative target that needs to be expressed as a metric in terms of an increase or decrease of money.
•Determine the timeframe for achieving the MOV - ask yourselves, when do we want to achieve this target metric?

(Note: the MOV should inform everyone what the project will achieve, not how it will be achieved. It should also focus on the organisation, not on the technology that will be used to build or support the information system).

Part Two:
Define Scope and produce a Scope Management Plan
Define the scope of the project and detail how the scope will be managed.
Provide a list of Resources
Identify and detail the resources for the project using MS Project where appropriate, including:

  • People (and their roles), plus any extra personnel that is required for the project.
  • Technology - any hardware, network and software need to support the team and your client.
  • Facilities - where will most of the teamwork be situated?
  • Other - for example, travel, training etc.

Part Three: 

Using MS Project, develop a schedule using a high-level Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). It should include:

  • Milestones for each phase and deliverable
    • This will tell everyone associated with the project that the phase or deliverable was completed satisfactorily.
  • Activities / Tasks
    • Define a set of activities/tasks that must be completed to produce each deliverable.
  • Resource Assignments
    • Assign people and resources to each individual activities.
  • Estimates for Each Activity / Task
    • Develop a time estimate for each task or activity to be completed.
  • Project Budget
    • Develop a budget using the time and resources estimated for each task or activity

A summary of the WBS should be clearly provided in the report. You must include complete screenshots of your own MS project file in your assignment report and keep your MS project file with you. You lecturer might request your files to be sent individually for marking.

Part Four: 

Project Risk Analysis and Plan

  • Document any assumptions you have made about the project
  • Using the Risk Identification Framework outlined in your text as a basis, identify five risks to the project – one for each of the five phases of the methodology.
  • Analyse these risks, assign a risk to an appropriate member, and describe a strategy for the management of each specific risk.

Part Five: 

Quality Management Plan. It should include:

  • A short statement that reflects your team’s philosophy or objective for ensuring that you deliver a quality system to your client.
  • Develop and describe the following that your project team could implement to ensure quality;
    • A set of verification activities
    • A set of validation activities


Part Six: 

Closure and Evaluation

For any project management, monitoring and evaluation assignment, click on the below button for our help.


Systems management

Written by Friday, 28 September 2018 16:24

Form a group of three students and inform your laboratory tutor of the names and student IDs of your group members. Choose one (1) scenario given in the list below as your assignment topic. Assume that your group has been hired by the client company to develop a networked system for their required services as described in your chosen scenario. Your task in this assignment is to (i) analyse client requirements, (ii) design the solutions, (iii) implement, configure, and troubleshoot implemented solutions, and finally, (iv) prepare a system documentation report meeting the client requirements and following a standard industry template. Detailed requirements are provided below:  
1. For your chosen scenario, (i) analyse client requirements, (ii) identify and propose the required servers and server roles (services), and (iii) provide required configurations for your chosen scenario.  
2. Perform the configurations using either virtually or physically installed server OS for your chosen scenario. Students can use Windows Server 2008 or a higher version, or Linux server if appropriate, which will depend on the scenario chosen. Your submission should include screenshots of each important step.  
3. Prepare a detailed system documentation report to record your work done in steps 1 and 2 above, using a standard template. You have the freedom to create a template, with company name, logo, etc., for your client and use that for your documentation report. This report will serve as an important part of backup and disaster recovery documentation for the organisation in your chosen scenario, and can be used for training new IT staff in the organisation. As such, you must consider human usability factors and include the configurations using a description of each important step, and screenshots corresponding to those in a way that will be useful to the target users of the document. Essential sections that must be included in the documentation are provided in the marking guide, however, you can include additional sections if deemed useful.   
You must configure the domain(s) using group members’ names (e.g., sajeen-joy-sam). If the chosen scenario requires a web server, the group must create a simple webpage (using html header tag only) to display the company’s name, and student ID numbers of the group members; this page needs to be stored on and displayed from the created web server.    This documentation report (one report per group) is to be submitted on Moodle in Week-11.   
4. Use your configured system to demonstrate individually your understanding of the implemented scenario during your week-12 laboratory class. 

For the best computing assignment help services, click on the order link below


Lobster Grill House

Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:26


Lobster Grill House will be a fairly priced seafood eatery characterized by family design service of Coast Specialties. Fried and grilled menus of crabs, chicken tenders, oysters, fish and shrimp will be served in a style that conjures memories of the famous Friday fish fries that historically drew families and friends together. Individual portions and family-sized platters, as well as other offerings, will be available, widening the appeal to all dinner types. Fresh baked French bread, pickled green tomatoes and our signature coleslaw, will complement our servings. The cost of our meals is expected to range from $5 to $15 per individual (Silver, 2007). Background music, comprising folk music namely Jimmy Buffet hits and popular Cajun tunes portraying marine life shall blend the numerous pop cultures and traditional sounds.

Company Ownership

Lobster Grill House will be owned and led by its founder Bennet Bradley, who will stand as the General Manager.

Product portfolio

Lobster Grill House will be a casual eatery with collections of seafood as the primary theme. It will be designed to depict the concept of freshly grilled and fried meals of menus of crabs, chicken tenders, oysters, fish and shrimp (Bly, 2009).  The selections will be set established according to the availability of the seafood. Based on the seafood theme, the restaurant will target both middle and upper-class segments. This will be achieved by offering meals that appeal to families. For the grownups, Lobster Grill House intends to serve a diverse collection of stuffed crabs, oysters, chicken tenders, shrimps, lobster crab and fresh fish. Apart from the favorites such as the salmon, tilapia, and trout, the restaurant shall serve species such as mahi-mahi, Snapper and arctic char, wall-eyed pike and red rock fish. Nowadays, diet trend has reached its peak. For this reason, Lobster Grill House will consider light menus for individuals who are dieting and the health conscious. The menu selections will contain foods with minimal calorie and fat levels. By considering such consumer needs and trends, the eatery will be a successful startup concept.


Seafood menus are becoming popular cuisines among Americans. People in the US are increasingly interested in healthy foods. Seafood cuisines thus are recognized as healthy food choices. The current government is supporting start-up restaurants that are planning to expand their services beyond the national borders. This is part of the government’s initiatives to globalize the restaurant industry (Bly, 2009). In addition, the government acknowledges the gratification of the restaurant sector is a critical element of the globalization of the country’s cuisine. With this, it is high time to start a new seafood restaurant business in the US with the aim of modifying the present perception of US restaurants.

Orlando, Florida is a strategic location to start this business because of the dearth of casual, fine-dining seafood themes restaurants (Silver, 2007).  This is coupled with the recent surge in global tourism from across the globe and an influx of people from its target demographics. Al ready, Orlando, Florida boasts of various seafood-themed restaurants. However, none of the existing restaurants may be considered fine, dining, rendering the proposed business the first of its kind in the area (Bly, 2009). The establishment will enjoy access to its target market of foreign tourists, affluent and middle-class Americans as well as other nationals visiting the city. It intends to attract customers with an appetite for fine dining who are seeking a tasteful, unique meal at an affordable price.

Market research and competitor analysis

Target Market

We predict that Lobster Grill House will appeal to a broad pool of consumers. While we expect to be frequented by all types of customers in both the business and residential community, the concept should be particularly designed for specific demographic and industry conditions (Bly, 2009).  Lobster Grill House is strategically designed for a niche with a high great cultural diversity surrounded by a moderate business and family based residential environment capable. The ambiance, menu and service style of Lobster Grill House have been created to appeal to the diverse demographic in Orlando. The competitive value pricing should especially attract medium income customers with a predominance of members of the family households.

Industry evaluation

Drawing from the Florida Restaurant Association, the 2020 industry sales are projected to rise above the $720 billion dollars posted in 2015 (Silver, 2007). This figure illustrates a 6% increase over 2014 industry sales. Sales from the restaurant sector account for 8% of the US GDP (Bly, 2009). Hopeful increases in consumer disposable incomes, and positive economic indicators give rise to expectations that 2020 will be a modest but steady growth year for the sector (Silver, 2007).  In fact, emerging economic pointers provide hope to a positive economic outlook. Moreover, industry experts anticipate that the number of restaurants could reach one million destinations by the year 2020. Simply put, 2020 is expected to be a profitable year for the industry.

An estimated 50% of all seafood money spent by customers is spent in drinking and eating establishments. Since 2012, the figure has shot up dramatically whereby roughly 30% of all consumers spending on drinks and food go to restaurants (Silver, 2007).  Families believe that eating out is a cost effective way compared to cooking at home and cleaning up. Expenditures on food away from home are currently rising for households with income above $30,000. A good number of families are in fact taking home a salary double this figure. Higher income families have a tendency of spending more of their food money in restaurants. A diverse ethnic population, flourishing household incomes and changing lifestyles are contributing to the variety of restaurant and cuisines concepts. This makes the country a world leader in restaurant innovation.

Competitive Analysis

The proposed location for Lobster Grill House is occupied by competitive dining places which help to draw guest traffic to the place. A good number of the present restaurants are comprised predominantly of fast food and a few full-service ideas. Restaurants that might be regarded direct competitors for our target customers are Beach House Grill and Original Oyster House.  It is worth noting two competitors are not necessarily identical ideas to Lobster Grill House. Nevertheless, it seems that we are competing for a similar consumer base. Lobster Grill House should be regarded unique to its competitors because of the uniqueness of the charcoal grilled product that will be offered. Few other restaurants in the place feature family style seafood menus (Silver, 2007).  


The proposed venture is estimated to cost $1,000,000 to start. Funding for this start-up will be provided by $300,000 in contribution from Bennet Bradley and the remaining $700,000 in proceeds from bank loan (Silver, 2007).  

Operational issues

As a start up, Bennet Bradley will hire employees equal to the running of a normal US restaurant. The owner will make sure he employs people who are service-centered with superb attitudes and ethics. Besides, he will hire experienced individuals with resumes including various years at popular high-end eateries. The list below describes the job positions that Lobster Grill House will retain in conducting its daily operations.

The General Manager:  Bennet Bradley will hold the position of the GM. His responsibilities will include overseeing all the restaurant’s personnel and establishing policies and procedures for the establishment. His starting salary will be $60,000 per year. The GM will also monitor the financial progress of the restaurant on a regular basis.

The Line Cook will be hired to prepare ingredients for all menu items including assembling the food selections for Lobster Grill House patrons. Also, the Line Cook will offer culinary support to the establishment. This position will attract an hourly pay of $10.

The Food Server will be in charge of receiving orders placed by patrons and delivering of orders and the subsequent collection of money from patrons. The hourly pay for this position will be $7.

The Assistant server will be in charge of cleaning and clearing of seating area after the departure of patrons. He/she will also prepare the area before the seating of the next patron. Also, he/she will offer beverage service as required and stock items within the reach of patrons. Such include condiments, straws, and napkins.  The person in this position will earn $7 per hour (Bly, 2009).  

Pricing strategy

It is estimated that the identified costs of our items and services will be competitive in the market, but not lower than the average, which will allow us to be comparable to the cost premium. Our meals and services will be alternatives to competitive items and related to an advanced quality that positively effects individual health. Through high sales volume, marketing of additional solutions, and revenue bonuses such as recipes and menus, the company will achieve greater added value than the competition. Buyers will not see us as another service of ready-made meals, but as an establishment that offers unique seafood selections at a reasonable cost (Silver, 2007).  

Summary and Recommendations

The concept behind Lobster Grill House is to maximize on the fact that restaurant industry is growing rapidly, and lifestyles are changing in favor of this sector. By applying various marketing tactics and applying all the details of this business plan, the proposed startup can secure a competitive advantage in the area among the established chains. The industry and the market were analyzed to obtain a clear picture of the market that Lobster Grill House would be entering. The aim is to reduce risks because any startup is often a risk on its own.

In the case of Lobster Grill House, controlling its supplies would be a key issue to its cost leadership. Purchasing is mass volumes to obtain discounts would be great supply chain strategy (Silver, 2007).  Moreover, a strict price policy can be applied, especially since the venture is a one-person management, the costs will be minimal. Here, the concept is to minimize costs which are easier to implement as the company is headed by one person. Cost leadership will enable the establishment to sell at a lower price than the existing rivals. Also, there is a possibility to start importing food items that are new in the country. This will make the eatery able to secure higher margins on these food items (Silver, 2007). According to Michael Porter’s concepts, it is beneficial for any business, that is realizing a reduced overall cost position, given that it holds a great relative market share or similar advantages like a high access to raw materials. By achieving a low-cost position via cost leadership, it brings high margins and more returns to the establishment. In turn, these could, for instance, be re-invested to sustain the cost leadership.


The Toyota Recall Crisis

Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:25


In 2009, Toyota Motor Corporation recalled some of its cars following unintended acceleration that led to the death of innocent citizens (Klewes & Wreschniok, 2009).  Ultimately, Toyota recalled millions of automobile due to floor mat problems, "sticky" gas pedals and brake problems. This case was because of potential issues with the gas pedal system that caused the accelerator to become sticky despite whether the car had a floor mat. Toyota acknowledged that occasionally, the gas pedal system could wear down and cause the accelerator to become harder to press, stuck or slower to return. This implies the gas pedal was poorly designed.

In 2010, the company initiated a massive recall globally to address the issues that were linked to faulty accelerators, brake issues, and floor mats being stuck. The problem started in 2009 when a police officer and his family, using a Toyota Lexus unexpectedly accelerated and crashed into another car, tumbled and burst into flames resulting to the death of the driver. Initially, the company claimed that the vehicle might have been fitted with inappropriate floor mats that may have slipped, trapping the accelerator pedal (Klewes & Wreschniok, 2009).  Complaints about Toyota increased since this incident. Critics accused Toyota of covering up defects instead of addressing safety issues seriously. Be February 2010, Toyota had recalled nearly 10 million cars (Ray, 1999).  Despite efforts to cope with a crisis, a company still faces a secondary crisis that might be more threatening than the initial one by failing to communicate with the society and causing misunderstanding.

Significance of the problem and issues

This case is significant in the sense that a crisis may occur in any industry thus organizations must understand the various crises and the ultimate consequences on the business. This case represents a specific type of rhetorical exigence in the sense that it created a scenario in which companies must respond to ongoing threats. Crisis threatens an organization’s image, reputation, identity and creates uncertainty (Fronz, 2011). Therefore, organizations in all sectors cannot ignore this case. For businesses, this case demonstrates that strategic planning to respond to a crisis is the most appropriate option to eliminate the risk and uncertainty thus a business will have more control over a crisis and the outcome. Immediately after a crisis, this case notes that corporations must retain the public’s positive identity, image, and reputation it had prior to the crisis.  

Analysis of organization and operating environment-affecting preparation for and reaction to crisis

Central to the vehicle recall issue is Toyota’s delay in identifying and tackling the situation (Ray, 1999).  However well Toyota acts, and whatever it says now, it is perceived that they ignored the problem until they were compelled to take action. It seems that corporate denial is the order of the day with Toyota following the Japanese saying: "If it stinks, put a lid on it." The most successful crisis management occurs before the issue escalates out of control in the "incubation" phase (Fronz, 2011). Crisis management at its best had identified and addressed some of the biggest potential crises before they escalated out of control. This demands an organizational culture, which is vigilant for possible crises, has open communication lines between management and staff and has the willingness to handle unpleasant truths.

Contrary, Toyota’s culture was ill-equipped to identify and address flaws in a quick manner. Two aspects of their culture fostered this organizational environment: an obsession with quality meaning that anything less than perfection is considered embarrassing and shameful (Ray, 1999).  Consequently, quality defects are literally inconceivable, and denial dominates. The second interrelated aspect of Toyota’s culture is their hierarchical management approach and the absence of open communication lines. Under such an environment, junior subordinates who are strategically positioned to identify early signals of crisis feel unable to point flaws. In the end, issues go unnoticed and unaddressed until they explode into a main crisis.

Another element affecting Toyota’s preparation for and reaction to a crisis is that the crisis struck at the essence of their reputation. Studies indicate that when a crisis strikes at the heart of brand values, it holds the potential to do the most damage. The reputation of Toyota brand is built on reliability and quality and anything that questions this is particularly threatening.

Key publics


Toyota’s loss in sales is merely shot term impact and can be solved, but the effect on key publics can be detrimental. The product recalls did not only affect Toyota’s manages but also its stakeholders. With a reduced financial position and profits, the company investors have departed, and employees are worried concerning their jobs. The recall was generally detrimental to the entire automobile sector. However, it improved market and financial positions of rivals such as Ford and General Motors (Fink, 2013).


Toyota’s recalls had minimal impact as far as consumers are concerned because only a tiny fraction of consumers experienced the problem. For most owners, the most significant effect would be the inconvenience of taking the car to the dealer to be fixed. Besides, the high vehicle recalls affected other owners trying to secure a dealer appointment (Klewes & Wreschniok, 2009).  The effect on consumers will greatly rely on how well Toyota and the dealers manage this process. However, consumers are somehow expressing concerns about the reliability of Toyota’s cars and the possible effect on the resale value. Nevertheless, the effect on consumers is generally less profound that was expected. As such, Toyota cannot risk its highly valued image by releasing the faulty cars before the issue is clearly identified and fixed.

Toyota Dealerships

All Toyota dealerships experienced a decline in business than expected and since then, the future is not looking great for an auto dealership. The brand continues to melt in the limelight and is pilloried by major comedians such as Jay Leno: "It was a beautiful day in Los Angeles. It was so nice that a lot of people walked to work--at least the Toyota owners"  (Fronz, 2011). Therefore, these dealerships are the most obviously and directly affected by the crisis. Of course, they are feeling the effects many ways passed 2010. On social networking sites, the proof that Toyota’s reputation has suffered cannot be disputed. Prior to the crisis, the marketing agency Zeta Interactive estimates the buzz around the company’s brand at 80% (Pangarkar, 2011). However, today, it is estimated at 70% behind various rivals such as GMC, Kia, Subaru, and Chevrolet.

Rental Companies

Rental firms have not been left out of this crisis either. At least in the short term, rental companies appear to profit from Toyota’s debacles because plenty of vehicles are stranded at dealerships, waiting to be fixed. This ripple effect if projected to end, perhaps in months or years to come, as some angry, sue-happy customers and a giant, humbled car company warrant a mediator.


Immediately following the crisis, Toyota reacted by recalling all the faulty car models and stopped the manufacturing of these models. Toyota’s primary objective is to restore the trust customers used to have in its products and get back investors. The company has taken additional steps to persuade consumers to stick with the brand. This includes providing free services to people to persuade them to bring in affected automobiles for appropriate recall repairs. Extension of the manufacturer warranty also signifies a powerful move (Pangarkar, 2011).

Toyota has taken sweeping and swift actions on all digital fonts; company website, social media and blogs. It is maximizing on the power of social media such as Twitter and Facebook to handle this branding menace in a whole-hearted way. Toyota is using its Facebook page to reach out to its nearly 70,000 fans. The Japanese giant automaker is also using Twitter to pass news to its 14,000 followers (Fronz, 2011). This is what is expected of any brand in crisis management mode.

Another important step that Toyota has taken is creating a crisis management system and supply chain management system. The aim is that given that such a situation arises, the company will be adequately prepared and that employees and suppliers are looked and managed. Currently, crisis management is underway, and Toyota is following what Johnson and Johnson did following the Tylenol case.

Evaluation and Impact

A ruined business reputation drives down organizational value (Fink, 2013). In the US, when talking about business value, there is a propensity to focus on shareholder value. However, corporate managers in Japan are more aware that the value of their organization also has an effect on the company’s organizational and social principles, as well as its financial principles, such as the value of shareholders. For this reason, they feel that a general loss of these principles will eventually impact the company’s upcoming financial value. Toyota’s recall crisis, taken as a whole, ruined its business reputation, which then triggered a loss of Toyota’s organizational and social values as well as their financial value (Fronz, 2011). The company’s financial value is shown by their stock prices, earnings and the apparent worth of upcoming cash flow. It is advisable to look at how Toyota’s stock prices responded to the recall crisis. Their stock prices constantly declined after attaining an optimum of 8,400 yen, in 2007, and decreased to an all-time low of 2,600 yen in 2008, amplified by the failure of Lehman Brothers in 2009 (Ray, 1999).  

Remarkably enough, Toyota’s flagging stock cost, however, progressively started to rise after the organizational President attended the US public hearing in 2010, reaching 3,700 yen as of 2010 (Pangarkar, 2011).  In early 2009 a trend of stable improves in Toyota’s operating income, earnings and net profit instantly changed. As a cause of their reduced working income for 2009, in their formal declaration, the company revealed a reduction of 1,480 billion yen due to the effects of product composition and the reduced number of automobiles sold plus a loss of 800 billion yen due to the impact of exchange rate variations (Fronz, 2011).  Nevertheless, popular Japanese critics agree with the fact that the fundamental cause of financial loss was because Toyota’s global expansion strategy had failed in accomplishing sales of 10 million automobiles globally (Pangarkar, 2011).

Lessons learnt

Toyota’s recall case serves three valuable lessons about crisis communication. First, we learn that aggressive growth can lead to unmanageable risk (Fink, 2013). Toyota’s aim of surpassing GM as the leading carmaker in the world pushed it outside the limits of quality control. As is evidenced in The Wall Street Journal publications, “The evidence that Toyota was expanding too much and too quickly started surfacing a couple of years ago.  Not on the company's bottom line, but on its car-quality ratings” (Klewes & Wreschniok, 2009).  Experts observed that in 2005, the company recalled more trucks and cars than it sold. As of 2007, Consumer Reports magazine automatically halted recommending all Toyota car models following quality declines on three models (Fronz, 2011). This makes us wonder whether when approving management’s plan for expansion, the company’s executives exercised proper diligence in ensuring that they could achieve growth without gambling on the entire business. It seems acquiring market share was not worth the cost. This serves a quick warning to the executives of other high growth-oriented corporations.

The second lesson is to obtain the facts fast and manage risks aggressively. In the Toyota recall, one troublesome aspect is the company’s differing accounts of the same incident (Pangarkar, 2011). The recall involved 4 million vehicles whose gas pedal and floor mats had issues. Companies cannot predict when they might face crises. Nevertheless, proper internal risk assessment mechanisms could help identify business areas where management must be alert. By implementing robust risk management plans, companies can tackle such issues as they emerge on the internal organizational ladder screen. This would help contain them before they explode in public.

Another lesson is to accept responsibility whenever crises occur. It seems Toyota is good at this area. Some years back, when Audi faced issues similar to Toyota, their position was “it was the driver’s fault.” This reaction ultimately ruined Audi’s reputation. It seems Toyota avoided a situation of passing the buck as in an interview, one of their spokesman said  “I don’t want to get into any kind of a disagreement with CTS. Our position on suppliers has always been that Toyota is responsible for the cars” (Klewes & Wreschniok, 2009).


With such statements,  it seems accountability is a key issue. The case of Johnson & Johnson’s recall of its Tylenol painkiller in 1982 that caused the death of seven people in Chicago earned the company a permanent position in the spheres of crisis management (Fink, 2013). However, this recall emerged from the dreadful act of an outsider, as there were no issues with the product itself.



Besides, the recalls seem to have exposed issues within Toyota company. Although their in-house workers can produce high-quality products, it is argued that the company's unwillingness to outsource is the cause of their competition. The fast speed of their international development and improved number of manufacturing facilities, however, will make more issues than can be coped with by their Japanese workers. Specifically, there is also a view that since around the time when Toyota’s North America President and Vice President shifted to other manufacturers, there was a faltering of communication between Toyota Northern America and Toyota head office (Ray, 1999).  

Toyota must embark on a large-scale re-structuring of their company, among them their Japanese team organizations such as Hino Motors and Daihatsu (Fronz, 2011). At present, each of Toyota’s 18 team plants in Asia produces several different types of cars. By this summer, however, the manufacturing of each plant must be divided by kinds of car, such as into huge vehicles, small vehicles, and minivans. It is advisable for Toyota to foster a more convenient environment for performing and enhancing quality by optimizing its manufacturing of each kind of car. It must also create a hybrid version of its vehicle designs. Further, by implementing common car bodies and parts for the Vitz, Corolla, and other designs, Toyota should seek to achieve a yearly cost reduction of 200 billion yen in the next five years.


Merck & Company

Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:20

Do you believe that Merck acted in a socially responsible and ethical manner about Vioxx

I believe the actions of Merck were not ethically or morally appropriate because he his company was aware of the fact that the drugs were unsafe before being approved by the FDA 1999. Prior to FDA’s rigorous testing and approval, Merck had already learnt that Vioxx increases the chances of developing a stroke or hear attack in 1998. The case points out that he knew quite well the possible cardiovascular consequences like heart failure that patients would develop in case the drug was launched in the market. Hence, Merck’s actions concerning Vioxx were unethical because the lacked utilitarianism ethics. Utilitarianism refers to the virtue grounded on utility, and it argues that action must be geared towards the benefit of the larger number of individuals.

Merck also acted in an immoral manner in not considering how launching Vioxx in the market would affect stakeholders including Merck, the public, users of the product and shareholders. The actions are based on pure self-interest for the business in securing profits than realizing the ethics of consequentialism. The consequentialist theory holds that Merck should have understood the benefits and harms to various stakeholders and opted so a decision that is of greater good for the greater amount of people. This implies Merck realised the various problems from the start of the product such as the trials in arthritis proving to be highly challenging and experiencing difficulties in requiring the controlled safety studies before the drug’s approval.

Either, Merck failed to act in accordance with virtue ethics as it requires him to demonstrate a character of integrity and looks to moral communities to aid determine ethical issues and guide ethical actions. For instance, in 2004, the company called for a meeting with FDA to stop the long-term research on Vioxx on patients who are prone to colon polyps. Merck informed the FDA that this study would remove Vioxx from the market voluntarily. They presented data, which indicates greater risks of strokes and cardiovascular diseases as from the 18th month in comparison to the placebo samples. As such, Merck saw that this drug was much a health risk to people who use it and the key issue here is that he was clearly aware of the problems from the very start but proceeded until he launched the drug on the market.

What should Merck have done differently?

I believe Merck should have approached this issue differently. They would have issued a press release acknowledging the potential risks to the particular target audience and confirming that the company was working with key stakeholders to lessen the risk before administering Vioxx therapy. Besides, they could have included in the drug’s package insert and fair balance to show that Vioxx has been contraindicated in high MI risk patients. This means Merck would need additional education and work for the sales department to communicate patient profiles with MI risk thus reduce potential income to profit the majority affected in this scenario. Utilitarianism suggests that Merck should continue marketing the Vioxx though with a revised package insert to determine the high-risk sub group as a contraindication. Further, Merck’s press statement should alert the public regarding the situation and advise the public that he is ethically dedicated to the safety of all patients. This would establish his reputable image while building trust with the HCPs, stakeholders, and patients. Though it would cut revenue in the short term, both the public and the company would profit in the long term.

What is the best way for the society to protect consumers of prescription medicines?

Physicians assume a critical part in health promotion, notably helping patients develop informed, responsible self-medication. Physicians recommend interventions for common health issues, recurrent and chronic illnesses. They are the main providers of primary healthcare among them the use of prescription and non-prescription medications. Physicians assume a key role in patient education concerning responsible self-medication such as when to pursue medication, how to track effects and when to stop medication. Therefore, they are charged with the responsibility of guiding patients regarding the use of prescription medicines and self-medication competencies such as the desired results of self-medication drugs.

The pharmaceutical sector ensures patient safety regarding prescription drugs by vigorously monitoring health outcomes. Then it reports to the FDA all evidence of potential side effects of negative impacts observed in some patients after the drug is introduced in the market.  Besides the pharm sector, government regulators are also important in promoting patient safety. For instance, regulators such as the National Drug Control (NDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) try to educate patients about the proper use and possible risks of drugs. These agencies are charged with the responsibility of ensuring the efficacy and safety of the drugs available to the general public.

On the other hand, policy makers are launching actions and measures to combat medication shortages. For instance, they are developing procedures and policies to ensure the use and accuracy of information in the current drug shortages information pool. Moreover, the use the existing drug shortage database to conduct periodic analyses which help identify risk aspects for possible shortages early. For instance, DFA’s strategic plan stipulates a rule that requires companies such as Merck to notify them promptly of possible disruptions to the supply of medically vital drugs.

Though consumers are expected to count on the health system to keep them safe, there are often steps they can embrace to look out for their safety. Despite being prescribed by the physician, consumers must find out what drugs they are taking and the purpose of the drug. Instead of simply letting the physician write and send you a prescription, consumers must ask the name and purpose of the drug. Such practices serve as a check in cases of confusion regarding the drug name.

How the present system should be changed to protect patients

The FDA could improve the current system of assessing effectiveness on drug safety by creating multiple clinical trials over a sporadic duration to identify if the drug is utterly safe to launch onto the market. I believe the best way would be for FDA to initiate a new strategy in the criteria for deciding whether a drug is safe for users. I would recommend that the FDA hold various test runs over 3-years duration after the creation of a drug. This process should conduct tests on patients from diverse demographic domains, which would serve them a winder of time to observe whether there are any new signs in the patients. By improving the present process sin this manner, the FDA would determine whether to accept or reject the product for further reviews and research. Such a process would prevent prospective harmful drug products from entering the market and harming thousands of individuals.



The utility of Social Networking Sites (SNS), notably and is increasingly becoming an integral and popular element of our daily communication. The phrase Social Networking Sites is defined as the use of mobile and web-based technologies to make communication an interactive dialogue (Jewkes, 2015). SNS comes in various forms such as internet forums, magazines, social blogs, weblogs, podcasts, wikis and videos among others. As the world is amidst a social media revolution, it is evident that social channels like Skype, MySpace, Twitter, Orkut, Instagram and Facebook are intensively used for communication reasons (Pea et al. 2012). This communication method could be between two people or among a group. Nowadays, most people are hooked on Facebook and Twitter to maintain contact with peers. These channels have become media for social interaction besides being used as social communication tools (Pea et al. 2012). There are advantages and disadvantages to the use of Facebook and Twitter. One key advantage is education, in that they allow for the extension of learning discussion and information sharing outside the formal classroom setting among different groups. This online sharing of knowledge increases communication competencies among learners in educational facilities. However, they have a flip side. At times, these tools seem to be misused by individuals, leading to interference with a user’s privacy. Nevertheless, Facebook and Twitter continue to bring people closer to one another, particularly those living across global borders.  


Twitter and Facebook developed until they became the most popular SNS across the globe. The widespread growth of these sites holds pros and cons. Therefore, this research paper aims to investigate the disadvantages and advantages of using Facebook and Twitter, especially in using the following groups, the wall, uploading pictures, and videos. The purpose of this report is to review advantages and disadvantages of two social networking sites; Facebook and Twitter. The report considers the benefits and costs of Facebook and Twitter on business enterprises and the society as a whole. This report gathered information from online resources, both academic databases, and public web pages.  


SNS are growing every minute on a daily basis. Their purpose is to allow communication between people all over the world. You can communicate with co-workers, family, friends or new individuals who one day will become your friends. You can communicate with all their friends, too. Both Facebook and Twitter have some way of communicating. This could be blogging, messaging, and photo sharing and chatting. Some SNS are aimed towards specific groups of individuals like book lovers, soccer lovers or environmental lovers, just to name a few. First, Facebook went online as a SNS in 2004. Initially, it was restricted to Harvard students until when it was expanded to all colleges and eventually the rest of the world. Currently, Facebook has grown to surpass 500 million users (Lee, 2014). This number surpasses MySpace in terms of web traffic and registered users. MySpace enables people to offer status updates and customize their profile page just as Facebook. It serves its users with the option of adding multimedia and music to their profile page. Facebook does not allow this feature. Essentially, MySpace is a single webpage dedicated to the user, and it can be used to interact with friends. Possibly the reason behind the success of Facebook is its greater continuity and simplicity of operation throughout user profiles (Lee, 2014). Twitter, on the other hand, adopted the concept of Facebook and simplified it. What differentiates Twitter from Facebook is that it strictly permits the user to post a maximum of 120 character comments (Jewkes, 2015). This results in easier, faster message reading. A person can read four tweets on in the same time he/she would take to read one comment on Facebook. Twitter’s profile page is even simpler as it shows users tweets in large font on the opposite part of the page while at the same time displaying followers on the right side. Facebook is argued to display what is seen as an intimidating amount of information. This “ease of use” has served Twitter, an upper hand over Facebook.



As a real-time information feed, Twitter is a channel where users communicate via 120 character comments with their followers. Today, businesses are using Twitter as a strategy to connect directly with their client base and communicate company promotions and news. Many professional service companies use it to communicate best practices, share knowledge and network with others in the sector-specific communities. According to Murthy (2013), Twitter is an integration of social networking and micro-blogging. These websites serve users a chance to engage in real-time sharing of tweets. Usually, a tweet is no more than 120 characters that the user’s followers can view. Drawing from Twitter official statistics, (Twitter 2016), the site manages over 350 million tweets daily. In fact, Twitter experienced a strikingly 1400% growth between 2009 and 2010 and continues to enjoy high growth rates (Murthy, 2013). Moreover, individuals and companies can use Twitter for corporate and personal purposes respectively. Twitter tops other SNS in terms of its ability to interact with a larger audience. It is being used effectively to promote services and products online and have them noticed immediately. As such, it offers business organizational the best opportunity to go viral.


Under this real-time information feed, users can create corporate and personal pages. Today, Facebook has approximately 500 million registered users surpassing MySpace the world’s most famous SNS as far as the number of unique visitors is concerned. It is argued that Facebook pages are social media editions of a corporation’s website. Companies are using their Facebook pages to announce updates and news, which then drops into the feeds of other Facebook users that have liked a company’s page. Just like Twitter, companies are using Facebook to create online connections and share information with followers. SNS are based on the concept of creating a fan page. Facebook’s design is always improving thus making it easier to create a page exclusively to promote a brand while building an organic and engaged fan base.



Facebook and Twitter are revolutionizing the way individuals communicate with each other, both for pleasure and business. Some argue that companies should simply block workers from accessing these sites while at work claiming cyber-slacking. This may not be the case as these sites offer individuals, workers, and companies a real advantage. Some of the advantages linked to the use of Facebook and Twitter are discussed below.


Assessments of e-learning strategies have found Facebook and Twitter allow for the extension of studying conversations outside the official classroom setting (Lee, 2014). Therefore, they promote further studying as learners not only engage with the material for longer but also are more likely to associate with it and integrate it into their everyday lives. Also, studies performed on the use of hand-held gadgets to deliver office studying revealed: “regular accessibility‟ implies individuals can access resources in a way that is both relevant and convenient to them. In turn, this results in a higher level of execution into work practice. Facebook and Twitter are also being used to improve opportunities for official studying across geographical situations. Case in point, within Pularumpi School and Sacred Heart School’s Linking Latitudes program, students from both institutions use Twitter and Facebook’s instant messaging and video to share details about their work and cultures collaboratively. Using Facebook and Twitter, learners from the two academic institutions connect to students from over forty other academic institutions (Murthy, 2013). Additionally, Facebook and Twitter use between instructors and students can improve motivation, rapport, and involvement with education and learning. From the perspective of informal knowledge and skills, Facebook and Twitter can facilitate skill development and learn outside formal learning environments (Murthy, 2013). This is achieved through collaborations, supporting the peer-to-peer learning of skills, diverse cultural expression, skills development and an empowered concept of citizenship. Lastly, following the high degree of personalization and urgency involved, Facebook and Twitter are specifically vital learning spaces for individuals struggling in traditional academic settings.

Networking, collaboration and information sharing

SNS, in this case, Facebook and Twitter, have demonstrated to be effective for business networking. People in nearly all organizations are using these sites to maintain business contacts and introduce contacts and colleagues to one another informally. The nature of these sites specifically is meant to encourage collaboration and information sharing between professionals operating in various industries. For instance, Facebook has a page for nurses, doctors, teachers among other professions. This motivates feedback and regular communication. With minimal restrictions, these sites would serve a valuable, easy-to-use forum for business discussion or academic debate. This can be illustrated by the use of restricted Facebook groups. Companies are setting up a private domain and using it to share ideas informally, thus encouraging creativity (Lee, 2014).


Facebook and Twitter forums have similarly opened up new promotional and marketing opportunities for companies. Businesses, both large and small are also creating fan pages to promote their businesses (Schneier, 2016).  In fact, a Facebook page has proven to be a key relationship builder with clients. These sites are becoming the new marketing strategy as they have replaced the traditional forms of advertising. With a Facebook or Twitter fab page, organizations can draw in users offering a brief summary of the business operations. Given that a user likes what is portrayed to them, he/she is likely to follow a link to the company’s website for more information. Interestingly, a fan page is often free. Businesses may pay for banner advertisements on Facebook and Twitter and may create their home pages. Appealing to the less formal, tech-savvy generation who are always seeking information about the latest brands on Facebook and Twitter, the platforms have become a valuable, low-cost marketing device. This is especially in the case of consumer-facing companies.

Strengthening Interpersonal Relationships

A positive interpersonal relationship is deemed a key predictor of wellbeing. Facebook and Twitter’s functions such as instant messaging, video sharing among others may address new obstacles that people confront to establishing and sustaining positive social relationships (Schneier, 2016).  Such obstacles may include lack of time free of structured activities like school, lack of accessible, safe and welcoming public spaces, as well as inadequate transport to reach these public spaces. Facebook and Twitter challenge these obstacles, as they are easily accessible, every day each minute via different technologies and from different geographical locations. Moreover, they assume a critical part in addressing the effect that high degrees of complexity and mobility may have on long-term relationships (Jewkes, 2015). For instance, research indicates that these sites are helping people who have recently transitioned from high school to college to form new relationships while sustaining the old high school friends. Precisely, students who exhibit lower degrees of fulfillment with college life and reduced self-esteem levels profited the most from active use of Facebook and Twitter.


Apart from the manifest advantages of Facebook and Twitter on global level discussed above, these sites have some adverse effects at individual, organizational levels and on social systems as a whole.

Marketing Risks

Marketing on SNS, namely Facebook, and Twitter caries various risks. Unless a company has someone to constantly monitor the firm’s accounts, disgruntled employees or customers might publish negative comments or tweets that are not often removable (Schneier, 2016).  For instance, all posts on Twitter are public, and the user has no control over what others say. Therefore, the negative news could go viral as easily as good news and may do a business irreparable damage. In 2012, the Information Systems Audit and Control Association released a report ranking malware and viruses, lack of control over company's content, brand hijacking, and unrealistic customer expectations as the top risks of Facebook and Twitter.

Kills interpersonal relationships

The use of Facebook and Twitter affects social well-being, social relationships and time available for study, sleep and other activities (Turkle, 2011).   In fact, Pea et al. (2012) of Californian Stanford University launched an online survey focusing on 3500 girls in North America. In this research, they investigated the relationships between media, social well-being, and face-to-face communication. Their findings indicate, “Negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction, namely Facebook and Twitter” (Pea R. et al. 2012). Media multitasking is linked to a multitude of social indicators such as not feeling normal, feeling less successful socially and sleeping less. It is related to an intense feeling towards more online friends as opposed to in-person friends. The degree of face-to-face communication is strongly adversely related to Facebook and Twitter multitasking.  Therefore, these findings indicate that “the growth of Facebook and Twitter multitasking should be viewed with some concern” (Pea et al. 2012).  In comparison, face-to-face communication is strongly linked to a multitude of positive social feelings. “Higher levels of face-to-face communication were associated with greater social success, greater feelings of normalcy, more sleep, and fewer friends whom the children´s parents believed were a bad influence” (Pea et al. 2012). Moreover, the findings hold that “even Facebook and Twitter that are meant to facilitate interaction between people are associated with unhealthy social experiences. The idea that these communication channels would open up a rich social world that benefits people’s social and emotional development is belied by these findings” (Pea et al. 2012). This implies that online communication (Facebook and Twitter) and face-to-face communication and not interchangeable.


Criminal gangs target Twitter and Facebook platforms because they provide an effective way of propagating malware to a huge, unsuspecting audience (Schneier, 2016).  The recent Secret Crush Facebook widget and Twitter Man in the Browser (MitB) attack are examples of how criminals are using these sites to their advantage. These platforms serve an easy method of playing a percentage game; they have so many users thus the criminals know how to rely on some of them to become victims. Still, given that the user is accessing Twitter and Facebook from a work PC, the company’s entire network risks being compromised. Particularly, this is the case when individuals believe they are receiving something from a friend, and thus, their security is automatically reduced (Jewkes, 2015).  Stalkers and purported to enter into the worldwide web and log into Twitter and Facebook sites to find out about people, especially the youth. Often, they use flattering tactics and make the user feel special and as if she/he is, the only one he/she cares about. The stalker can view any videos or photos that a user puts online, including all his/her online friends (Jewkes, 2015).  A user cannot remove any photos that she/he puts on the web. If a person, puts too many personal details on the web, the stalkers to trace the person and meet him/her. With this, it is argued that Twitter and Facebook are open up this ability for stalkers to find too much information about people, trace and meet them.

False identity and bad behavior

Twitter and Facebook are characterized by anonymity, which facilitates people to take liberties with the truth and misbehave without consequences (Turkle, 2011).  When using these sites, it is impossible to trust the identity of others. Cybercrime, lies, and deception attest to this. For instance, in the area of scientific work, the mental contributions of people, normally examined in essays, is mandatory. Here, anonymity causes a key issue because students may purchase, download or commission such essays. Both Twitter and Facebook serve the opportunity to fake personal mental effort. Despite the presence of software to combat plagiarism, it has proven to be partly successful. Furthermore, anonymity leads to misbehavior following the lack of social control. One of the most well-known of this is cyber-bullying or mobbing. Turkle (2011)  writes “Cyber bullying is any behavior performed through electronic or digital media by individuals or groups that repeatedly communicates hostile or aggressive messages intended to inflict harm or discomfort on others“. A survey focusing on German youth shows that roughly 32% have been victims of cyber-mobbing (Schneier, 2016).  At least one out per five students are directly affronted or threatened through Twitter or Facebook. More so, one out of ten has declared that they have at once been cyber-mobbing offenders.  


Therefore, where does all this leave the society that seems to be greatly concerned about the intense use of Twitter and Facebook sites today? The answer is technology in the form of protective Web gateways to allow people to use these sites securely and safely. A protective Web gateway as Web marshal integrates data leakage prevention, advanced Web access controls and inbound threat controls in a single centrally managed service or solution that makes accessing Twitter and Facebook a high reward, low-risk practice. For organizations, there are both personal use issues and technical challenges that need to be addressed. First, companies must determine their mode of operation, identify and apply proper underlying technology solution. Then, they need to communicate to their staff how they can use Twitter and Facebook in accordance with the company’s Accepted Use Policy. Twitter and Facebook are presently boasting of a great profile because the benefits that they pose override the challenges. Nowadays, workers are permitted to access these sites on the job but with some limitations. While some companies prevent workers from accessing such platforms, the smart ones have deployed Acceptable Use Policies combined with secure Web gateway technology to keep their employees and the company safe, while fostering a flexible work climate. Not only does such powerful security measures safeguard against threats posed by Twitter and Facebook, but they also protect individuals and companies from various unknown web-based threats.  



Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:15

The company’s financial performance

Founded in 2008, Vipshop Holdings is headquartered in Guangzhou, China. The company specialises in online flash sales, and their chief business is offering customers with discount branded items like shoes, handbags, clothing, home products, cosmetics and infant supplies just to mention a few. As the leading e-commerce entity in China specialising in fashion flash sales, the enterprise was listed on New York Stock Exchange in 2012. As of 2024, the company recorded profits for ten constant seasons. As per 2014, the net profit of Vipshop was $700 million with a 300% increase compared to 2013. At the same time, their market value was at $16 billion. A recent study launched bu iReasearch indicates that Vipshop is rated among the top three in “China’s Mobile Shopping Market Share" and “China’s Independent Business-to-consumer Internet-based Business Market Share".

The company’s strategy

In 2014, Vipshop launched the “Global Flash Sales” strategy. The primary goal of this new business strategy was to upgrade the company’s cross-border e-commerce platform. Under this strategy, the company makes available a fixed quantity of goods for sale for a limited period, normally at a 60-80% discount below the normal retailing price. This strategy allows Chinese consumers to buy quality brands often considered beyond their reach. Flash sales have emerged to be the basis of a uniquely profitable business strategy for Vipshop. This is because Vipshop obtains merchandise at a discount, sells them at low prices and then ships them out in bulk. This has translated into greater margins as opposed to traditional e-commerce firms; that must maintain enormous inventories in a range of products.


Vipshop has positioned itself and maintained their competitive advantage by applying low cost-leadership. Vipshop pursues low cost by distinguishing itself primarily on the ground of price. They believe that providing low prices to customers is crucial to the firm’s future success. The company mitigates the costs of lowering prices by attaining higher sales volumes, achieving better operating efficiencies and negotiating better terms with suppliers. Vipshop ensures that they offer same quality services and products as their rivals at a significantly lower price.

Quantitative goals for market share and profitability

Vipshop has two main quantitative goals for market share and profitability; increase sales and expand market share. The company aims to increase sales by at least 20%  in the next fiscal year. Moreover, expanding market share is the key to Vipshop’s relevance and business growth. The firm will deploy various marketing strategies and tactics to achieve this goal. Such include acquisitions, mergers and introducing new products.


For Vipshop to distinguish against competitors, they have acquired various e-commerce start-ups such as and These new acquisitions are helping them in offering high value to their clientele by applying the technology of the acquired partners at low cost. Also, Vipshop has attained scale economies through diverse product offerings which include discount branded items like shoes, handbags, clothing, home products, cosmetics and infant supplies and much more. Such product portfolio helps Vipshop maintain its low prices thus transferring the benefits to the consumers.

Critical resources and capabilities

Strategic resources and capabilities significantly impact Vipshop’s competitive advantage and long-term survival in the industry. Hence, this section explores how Vipshop’s critical resources and capabilities serve them a competitive advantage over rivals, based on the VRIO perspective. First, Vipshop’s research and development (R&D) department has proven extremely valuable. This area has guided towards innovation of mobile platforms and machine learning. Here, the aim is to use advanced analytics to Big Data to tailor retail experiences for consumers. Case in point, buyers will be able to upload pictures of products to, which inturn, automatically recognizes and suggests similar or the same goods. The technologies out of the R&D unit will also customize a customer’s landing page depending on their browsing behaviours on the e-commerce website. Such resources are considered extremely critical to achieving a unique competitive edge for Vipshop. Moreover, the company has launched various employee empowerment programs to channel and focus their staff’s expertise, motivation, innovation, knowledge, and experience. All these are the core competencies of Vipshop in terms of human resources. Such programs include Career Choices whereby the firm pays for its employees to take short-term courses in demand areas. The combination of these human resource capabilities and R&D resources assume an integral role in the long-standing prosperity of Vipshop, including the long-term competitive edge.

Unusual problems that put Vipshop at a competitive disadvantage

Vipshop reported an in-line set of financila results but guided an outlook that appears to fall short of consensus probably because of intensified rivalry from larger scale players like Alibaba. While report is a motivating factor for revenue growth, the investment fraternity if greatly divided about the growth outlook of Vipshop. One one side, the  sell-side analysts and investors, continue to show faith in the firm as a leading flash sale enterprise, capable of attracting global brands that are pursuing expansion into the Chinese market. On the other side, apparent partnerships by large scale e-commerce enterprises like Alibaba is an unusual problem because the rivalry is intensifying and investors window how Vipshop may contend against its larger competitors that have consuemr traffic, brand reputation and steady sign-ups with leading global brands like Zara. From the face value, it is challenging to view how Vipshop would differentiate from other flash sale platforms. Nevertheless, specialization in some verticals like beauty, baby and mother supplies could maintain a loyal use pool and possibly make Vipshop a lucrative acquisition target. This is because lerger e-commerce platforms are seeking to fill in the loophole on verticals where they appear weaker relaitve to their rivals. As of now, investors argue that Vipsho’s growth trajectory is in jeorpardy. Emerging downward revenue trends across key brokers as a clear sign that the market is intensely bullish concerning VIPS and more downward revisions will be obsreved given that VIPS fail to execute. As such, invetsors and analysis have already taken Vipshop out of their top picks regarding near term growth concerns and reitareted their preference for Alibaba as far as China’s e-commerce space is concerned.


Cultural Heritage Preservation

Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:14


Myanmar, formerly Burma, in Southeast Asia, is a country consisting of 100 ethnic groups (Burma, 2001). There are many cultures of various ethnic groups scattered across Myanmar. With the cultural diversity that exists in Myanmar, then the existing culture must be preserved because the culture is a very important element in representing the personality of a country. There is a tendency that young generation is Myanmar do not recognize their cultures. Performing art is a culture developed to introduce Myanmar culture to the young generation. This paper consists of various parts. First, the introduction describes culture heritage and its importance. Then, the paper describes various approaches that are used to Preserve The Cultural Heritage. In the end, benefits and challenges of preserving cultural heritage are discussed.

Definition and importance of cultural heritage

Cultural heritage refers to the collection of “cultural assets inherited from the past in all forms and aspects, being them tangible, intangible, or digital” (Southeast Asian Studies, 1996). This definition appears to be generalised as it incorporates buildings, sites, monuments, landscapes, libraries, museums but also practices various expressions of human creativity thus there is no difference between the tangible and intangible cultural heritage.

While its benefits and importance for the local communities and territories have been greatly recognised, mostly, cultural heritage preservation is sadly not treated as a priority in the modernization process, unless its connections to the economic activities and global exchanges are made clear. This paper will focus on the case of Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, in Southeast Asia. This area is home to more than 100 ethnic groups thus considered one of the richest, regarding cultural diversity (Houtman, 1999).  Here, despite the rapid pace of modernisation, the government has properly managed its culturally rich heritage and continues to rate its potential for economic development. While acknowledging the undisputable potentials and value of cultural intangible heritage, for the sake of this paper, only the performing arts cultural heritage will be explored. This is because this intangible cultural heritage is considered bankable and globally recognised for its value as a driver of economic development.

Myanmar’s performing arts is one of the most diverse and richest in the Southeast Asian region (Ye, 1997). In fact, it can be compared to that of most notable regional neighbors such as Thailand and Columbia. Moreover, harsh domestic repressions and severe international isolation are some of the conditions affecting the nation since the military takeover in 1962 (Houtman, 1999).  Such experiences have led to a vacuum in the area of heritage preservation and most performing arts have been ruined because of protracted periods of neglect.

However, recently, the government launched initiatives to promote and preserve the country’s performing arts heritage (Miksic et al. 2011).  For instance, they established the Ministry of Culture, holds national performing arts competitions and other cultural exhibitions. Moreover, Myanmar believes that if their dress style and performing style are eroded by modernisation, their culture will be degraded. Also, if the writing, beats and timing of the music are disturbed then the grammar of the language will be worst thus their music damaged. For Myanmar, performing arts show their standard of national culture as well as national character. Throughout the years, Myanmar citizens have been protecting their performing arts due to its delicate creativity, handing down the artistic skills, perpetuation and the art of composing from generation to generation.

If the embankment of the performing arts of  Myanmar is eroded by the waves of globalization in the version of modernization, then Myanmar’s cultural heritage will soon be endangered. For this reason, the government holds annual Traditional Performing Arts Competition since 1993 (Burma, 2001). The state encourages not only the promotion and development of traditional culture but also exposing and preserving it among the people. This is particularly for the young generation through organizing the annual Myanmar traditional cultural performing arts, which brings together artists of all ages to perform.  Therefore, these national level competitions assume a critical part in the implementation of a delicate cultural heritage, especially promoting Myanmar’s performing arts culture.

The Preservation Of The Cultural Heritage

The aim of the annual traditional performing arts competition is to promote and preserve the cultural heritage of Myanmar’s nationalities (Burma, 2001). This competition is characterised by marionette, xylophone, harp, Ozi, orchestra, piano, song composing, drama narration, dancing, and Maha Gita. Among all these marionette and drama contests serve audiences both aesthetic and knowledge. Often, drama contests portray the intellectual, physical and moral development of youth who are the power of the future Myanmar. On the other hand, Dobet and Ozi contests depict honest, joyousness and polite rivalry and unity. All the performing arts of Myanmar’s ethnic races are based on the movements of the waist, head, hand, and leg.

Most people in Myanmar relate the performing arts heritage with the traditional examples such as the kabuki and noh. Nevertheless, the performing arts include craftsmanship, music and drama to name just a few. Since Myanmar’s implementation of the Cultural Properties Protection Law, it has been at the forefront in the protection of performing arts heritage (Houtman, 1999).  With the nations dramatic advancement in industrialization and modernization, their traditional performing arts have recorded an upward trend. The benefits of industrialization and modernization like poverty reduction, freedom of expression and democracy are universally acknowledged. Similarly, there has been a universal obligation to transmit and protect Myanmar’s performing arts heritage for future generations.

With this in mind, Myanmar created a Trust Fund for the promotion and preservation of their performing arts heritage in the global community. This fund has enabled them to protect various forms of performing arts such as music and dance. For instance, they have preserved the today aka dance and instruments such as the saung-gauk. Performed in theatres and at weddings, the yodaya aka dance represents a unique synthesis of  sudden shifts in melody and rhythm as well as a change in texture and timbre. Nevertheless, the collapse of the feudal order adversely affected the performing arts heritage (Skidmore, 2005). Through the trust above fund, Myanmar has managed to help with the creation of local networks and preservation of the theatrical texts to transfer this heritage to the future generations. Besides, at the recent UNESCO General Conference, it was agreed upon that a draft convention must be crafted. Hence, following the inter-governmental conferences, the draft was produced. Myanmar assumed a crucial role in the implementation of the Convention for protecting the Intangible Cultural Heritage, which covers performing arts.


Modernization has led to the dramatic expansion of Myanmar, which is struggling to uphold its culture and heritage (Miksic et al. 2011). Day by day new music and dances are coming up threatening to replace Myanmar’s traditional dances and music. At times, historically significant performing arts are forgotten as new ones replace them. This has ignited a controversial debate on whether Myanmar’s performing arts culture should become a prey of modernization or not. To begin with, conserving the culture of performing arts is a means of transferring Myanmar’s ancestral legacy to the future generations. This is a great means for the current children to learn about the country's heritage and culture. Also, such performing arts serve insights into Myanmar’s ancestral lifestyle. Understanding Myanmar’s history and respecting it it crucial to advocating patriotism in the nation’s youth. Moreover, such performing arts is likely to attract more tourists thus tourism sector will expand. In the end, this will bring in more money and improve the lives of Myanmar people. Such money could be used to preserve the various performing arts.

Some people believe that Myanmar’s old performing arts are no need for the country and they should be replaced with modern arts. Nevertheless, other argue that such traditional heritage should be safeguarded for Myanmar people to know and remember their past. By protecting the historical performing arts, Myanmar’s history is passed on to the future generations (Miksic et al. 2011).  It is important for children to know their traditions, which are irreplaceable and priceless. It is believed that replacing the performing arts of Myanmar is a sign of disrespect for the ancestors and their traditions. This is because every nation has its own history and traditions which are reflected via performing arts. Therefore, replacing Myanmar’s traditional performing arts means destroying the old history and value.


Appreciation of Myanmar’s traditional performing arts is at times constrained by the laws governing the protection of this cultural heritage (Skidmore, 2005).  The issue with Myanmar’s legislation (CAP 25/11) is that it does not recognise explicitly the value of intangible heritage. Performing arts are acclaimed based on their scientific or historic worth and colonial policy makers determined these values. Nowadays, this cultural heritage is the property of Myanmar government, which keeps it in trust of the Myanmar people yet it wrestled it away from these same individuals.

Preservation of performing arts demands a clear definition of the values to be conserved. Following their intangible nature, it is evident that these values are part of the cosmos of Myanmar community (Skidmore, 2005).  Conserving them demands a registration of the context under which they were used or practiced. However, an examination of Myanmar’s laws reveals that a professional manager is tasked with the duty of defining the value of these performing arts. The Act is argued to restrict the performing arts, and this makes us wonder for which citizens does the board sustain the heritage in trust (Steinberg, 2001). In Myanmar, the management of performing arts requires the law to re-define the criteria by which these arts are to be acclaimed. This entails re-evaluating the current performing arts and preserving them as recorded knowledge or as legends in oral traditions.


Since 1993, Myanmar has been holding performing arts with the aim of revitalising their traditional cultural performing arts that has been preserved by artists of successive eras (Houtman, 1999).  The annual competitions are participated by thousands young contestants in categories such as plays, music, composition, dance and song at various levels of basic education, higher education, amateur and professional levels. From the historical period until today, Myanmar’s performing arts has been flourishing depending on their own styles, forms, elegance, character and languages. However, this heritage was at the verge of extinction following various factors such as financial constraints, caused by modernisation. Today, with government support, this peculiar performing arts has been revitalised. Cultural education via seminars and workshops in the country has been another approach used to preserve the performing arts heritage. The aim of these educational programs is to promote cultural awareness and ownership among Myanmar’s citizens. After achieving this, the citizens are expected to show interest in preservation.


Qualitative cost-benefit of a college degree

Written by Thursday, 14 April 2016 12:11

Recently, students have been paying huge amounts of money to attend a college but earned less upon graduation (Arai, 1998).  Such trends have caused many observers to question if a college degree is a worthwhile investment. To be precise, college students endure the following expenses: supplies such as text books, tuition fees, food, room and board among others. Supplies, tuition fees and books are the direct costs of education, but board and room are indirect costs as they are incurred to sustain a subsistence level of education.  Besides the above, opportunity cost is one of the most important costs as these students forgo earnings while in school. While it is categorized under indirect costs, it accounts for nearly 40% of the total college degree costs (Reynolds et al. 2007).  In addition to the above costs that students endure, a college education is also associated with social costs and non-market costs. For instance, the social costs are a result of philanthropies and government subsidies. Non-market costs related to college education include job-related stress, marital instability, alienation and destructive social protests.

Economists have examined the earnings of workers with bachelor’s degrees, workers with high school diplomas and workers with associate’s degrees (Reynolds et al. 2007).  The findings reveal that despite the costs, a college degree remains a valuable investment. A key reason is that a college degree is a relatively valued asset regardless of the doubling tuition fees because the salaries of Americans without a college education have been falling. The outcome has been a premium college wage, which is currently nearing an all-time high. Reports indicate that between 1980 and 2015, employees with a college degree had annual earnings of roughly $50,000 after adjustment for inflation (Reynolds et al. 2007).  Employees with an associate’s degree took home approximately $40,000 while those with a high school diploma were paid $36,000 (Arai, 1998). Economists project that in the next four decades, employees with a college degree will earn an average of 60% more and employees with an associate degree, an average of 20% more than the high school graduates. Research indicates that individuals who pursue college studies “may well have aptitudes, skills, and other characteristics that make them different from those who do not go on to college.” Such differences explain why college graduates are earning almost double of what non-graduates are earning. However, it is argued that even after examining the complete set of costs and benefits, an investment in a college education remains a wise economic decision for students.

These factors are difficult to quantify because a recent Census Bureau report discovered that the number of American students attending college has dropped by nearly half a million between 2011 and 2015  (Reynolds et al. 2007). In spite of studies indicating a better overall quality of life and higher employment rates for college graduates, the past few years have experienced a declining trend in the pursuit of higher education. The sky rocketing costs of college education, worsened by heightened scrutiny concerning its value, presents a multifaceted issue that absolutely lends itself to mathematical modeling. Previously, experts in the academic field have been unable to quantify the value of college education. Interestingly, scientists are currently experimenting with new models to calculating its value. For instance, Stanford, MIT and Harvard are diving into the arena of free online course work leading to alternative approaches to certifying mastery in massively open online courses (MOOCS). Moreover, the Mozilla Foundation, based in Silicon Valley is currently promoting the theory of open badges that aims to demonstrate the mastery of both informal and formal learning. This presents a great challenge in rethinking how to rate and rank colleges today. Traditionally, the rating and ranking were based on an alchemistic combination of hard-to-measure components like campus-based statistics and reputation, among them acceptance rates, endowment and library sizes among others. The issue is that neither of these metrics can directly measure performance once they arrive in college (Arai, 1998). Moreover, while a college diploma is an indicator of what a person has learnt, it is not necessarily a signal of the actual expertise and skills the person is ready to apply.

Variables that contribute to higher or lower salaries

Performance is commonly used to determine an employee’s pay. This approach is commonly known as “pay-for-performance.” If a person is an exceptional performer, then his/her salary increment will take this into consideration and get the employee closer to the higher end of the range (Gratz, 2009). On the other hand, for a low performer, he/she may not see any salary increment. Similarly, if an organization is performing good and follows a profit sharing structure, workers are likely to reap benefits from the organization’s performance. Besides performance, labour unions are also influential in determining a salary increase (Gratz, 2009). Primarily, the labour unions try to influence salaries by affecting or regulating the supply of labour in the market. They practice their influence for allowances and a higher salary via collective bargaining with the representatives of the management. If the collective bargaining efforts do not result in allowances and salary increment, they turn to strikes and other approaches under which the supply of labour is restricted.

Supply and demand are another factor that shapes salary increment. Salary is defined as the price for the services rendered by an employee or worker. Because a company desires these services, it must thus pay a price that will generate the supply, which is controlled by a group of employees via unions or an individual employee (Gratz, 2009). The practical implication of this theory of supply and demand is the invention of “going- wage rate”. Generally, given that something happens to reduce labour supply, like restrictions by a specific labour movement, companies will respond by increasing salaries. The reverse of the situation is predicted to result in a reduction of employee salaries, given other variables, like those discussed below, do not intervene.

This section uses a scientific method to describe in detail how I would design a study to estimate the effect of education, performance, labour supply and unions on wages and earning. It gives a hypothesis of the directions and magnitudes of these factors regarding their effect on salaries. The research methodology is also discussed.  

Hypothesis of the research

Research variables: effects of performance, education and labour supply on wages

In the initial stage of the research, this section proposes the following hypothesis which characterize employees’ salaries in the US

Do those persons with more education, more productive and are involved in labour unions, make more money than those of less ability and less education?

An investigation into the effects of performance, education and labour supply is complex by the selective distribution of these variables themselves. In fact, on average, those who exhibit these variables have greater aptitude scores, have had more pressure for success and came from homes with higher socio-economic status. Given these correlated variables influence wages, disentangling the impacts of these factors from people’s backgrounds will be impossible. To research the effects of the three variables, then, at best, the study will control for extraneous influence and consider that other factors could be potential justifications for wage increment (Westenholz-Bless & Achola, 2007).


The sample in this study will consist of mature males and females (40 to 50 years old), working in a factory, presumably at the peak of their careers and earning power. Most have long completed their formal studies and thus the effects of the research variables have been stabilized. This sample will be used because the data gathered when the samples are in their early twenties might be analyzed in conjunction with incomes, performance and educational levels data gathered at later points in time. Generally, sample participants have higher performance rates than the population as a whole, and they are more focused on entrepreneurship. Nearly one-quarter of the sample population are in each of the academic groups: post-college training, college graduates, college training and high school graduates.


To explore the long-run effects of the three study variables on wages, the sample has been restricted to mature persons. As indicated earlier, the effects of the study variables on persons in their twenties are complicated by the late appearance on the labor market of those with formal education. For instance, medical graduates might not start earning professional until they attain their thirties. One approach may be to collect a sample of older persons today and then look into their past to discover how they performed in the past, as youth. Nevertheless, the data generated from this type of sample is likely to be extremely irregular and challenging to gather thus it will be of little practical value. Alternatively, the research team can locate a uniform data pool collected years ago and attempt to gather uniform data on the present performance, education level and salaries of sample members (Westenholz-Bless & Achola, 2007). Sadly, this approach is biased by the difficulty and impossibility of identifying and locating people. However, this study will be based on a sample gathered in the latter method, which seems to be the most feasible approach.

Statistical issues

There are so many statistical issues to this research project. First, the salaries of the sampled employees can only be estimated on a monthly basis. Of course, this cannot reflect the reality as some people, like those in the agricultural industry; often receive their wages on a seasonal basis. The level of education that employees obtain is likewise a big variable. In most cases, a higher academic level is often associated with a great salary. Of course, this makes a significant difference in salary determinant. The study also wanted to include wealth variable to determine salary into the equation, but this was made impossible due to the limitation in the present data (McIntyre, 2005).

Another statistical issue is that this research has only focused on how the three variables affect salaries of mature employees within an organization. Therefore, the findings of this research might not apply to other employees outside the chosen age bracket (Westenholz-Bless & Achola, 2007). This means that the outcomes of this study will only be applicable within the sampled age group and would not represent the effects of the three variables on the salaries of all employees. The other issue is that the research project has only concentrated on the non-administrative workers of a factory. Therefore, the findings are not applicable to workers in other occupations such as lawyers, teachers, office employees and much more. Hence, the people who refer to this study must understand that the study participants are factory employees. The researcher must exercise some caution because discrepancies between the supervisors’ and workers’ responses could arise from impartial coverage of friendly policies rather than worker ignorance. McIntyre (2005) advised that the researcher should try to limit this possibility by excluding part-time and temporary workers.  


1.0 Introduction    

Obesity is a serious health issue in the U.S.A because the rates of obesity have been increasing in children, adolescents and adults for the past thirty years (Waters et al., 2011). The increasing rates of obesity have numerous health implications, and they have increased the rates of approximately 30 health conditions. The health conditions strain the American health care system. Approximately one-quarter of the healthcare costs is associated with obesity (Waters et al., 2011). This paper provides a health promotion of weight loss for the obese adolescents in the U.S.A.

2.0 The role of advanced practice nurse in the promotion of health

The advanced practice registered nurse (APRNs) is an umbrella term for the Registered Nurses (RN) that have met the advanced clinical practice and educational requirements. The APRNs include nurse practitioners, certified nurse anesthetists, certified nurse-midwives and clinical nurse specialists. The APRNs have finished the formal graduate education that can lead to a masters degree in unstring and a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree (Lowe et al., 2012).

2.1 Nurse Practitioner

Nurse Practitioners (NP) offer specialized and primary health care to communities, individuals, groups and families in various settings such a nurse-managed clinics, schools, nursing homes, health maintenance organizations and hospitals among others. The nurse practitioners have specialties in mental health, adult care, family care, gerontological care, women’s health and pediatric care among others. The NPs conduct physical examinations, take histories, diagnose common illness, treat injuries and common illness, issue immunization manage chronic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, counsel patients on healthy lifestyles and disease preventions and refer patients to health providers depending on their conditions (Lowe et al., 2012).

2.2 Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM)

The CNMs deliver babies in birthing centers, hospitals, and homes. They manage the health of women all through their life span by offering primary care, family planning advice, gynecological examinations, managing low-risk labor and delivery and providing neonatal care to the women as from the adolescence stage through menopause. They also handle reproductive healthcare issues for the women (Lowe et al., 2012).

2.3 Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)

Approximately 70% of the Clinical nurse specialists work in the inpatient hospital settings whereas others practice in basic community settings, clinics, private practices and nursing homes. Other than offering psychotherapy and primary care, the CNSs work as administrators, managers, educators, researchers, and consultants. They come up with quality control methods and mentor other nurses (Lowe et al., 2012).

2.4 Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)

The CRNAs work in the oldest specialties of advanced nursing practice. The CRNAs offer more than 65% of anesthetics every year, and they are the only providers of the anesthetics in one-third of all the hospitals and 85% of all the rural hospitals. They deliver anesthesia and care that is related to it for all the obstetrical, surgical and therapeutic procedures. More importantly, they offer emergency care and chronic pain management services (Lowe et al., 2012).

3.0Current evidence supporting behavioral change and risk assessment

3.1 Evidence supporting Risk Assessment

Roughly, 13 million children and adolescents in the U.S.A are obese thus their body mass index (BMI) is above the 95th percentile (State, 2016). That is to say, 17% of the children and teenagers between 2 and 19 are obese. Furthermore, 8.4 % of the children are obese in their early childhood, and this increases their chances of being obese during adolescence and adulthood. It is imperative to note that 6.5 % of the adolescents are severely obese (, 2016). In the past 40 years the rates if obesity among children aged six to eleven have increased from 5% to 14% and the rates have tripled in the adolescents aged 12 to 19.Specifically, the rates of obesity among adolescents have increased from 5% to 17.1% (, 2016). The obese adolescents have a higher probability of becoming obese in their adulthood. Approximately 61% of the obese adolescents have additional health risk factors such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure (, 2016). As shown in the figure below, ethnic and racial inequalities persist among the children and the adolescents. Specifically, 26.1 % of the Latino kids and 20.2% of the black kids are obese when compared to 14.1% of the non-Latino white kids and 6.8% of the Asian-American children (, 2016). Evidently, some ethnicities have higher risks of being obese than others. The rates of obesity among children from various ethnicities are summarized in the figure below.


Figure 1: The Rates of obesity among children from various ethnicities

Source: (, 2016)

3.2 Evidence supporting Behavioral Change

Obesity is a prominent risk factor for serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, type II diabetes, heart disease and stroke. The health expenses on childhood and adolescent obesity add up to $14 billion every year (Khambalia et al., 2012).  Approximately 30% of the children in the U.S.A do not engage in physical activity more than three times every week. Approximately 75% of the high schools students in U.S.A do not consume the recommend vegetables and fruits every day (Swinburn et al., 2011). The unhealthy eating habits have increased the incidence of obesity among the adolescents in the U.S.A hence the generation of the adolescence is less healthy, and its life expectancy is likely to be short. The figure below provides the obesity trends among children and adolescents that lie between 2 and 19 years in the U.S.A since 1971 to 2012.


Figure: Trends in Childhood and adolescent obesity

Source: (, 2016)

4.0 Health promotion services in community settings

4.1 Screenings

The screening will be carried out on adolescents with the aim of ascertaining whether they are obese, or they have the risk of being obese. The adolescents whose BMI will be more than 30kg/M2 will be referred to the multicomponent and intensive behavioral interventions. The adolescents will be offered intensive counseling regarding the behavioral interventions that can promote weight loss in a sustainable manner.

4.2 Referral Opportunities

The local communities will be included in the weight management program for the obsese adolescents. The exercise referrals will focus on referring the obese adolescents to fitness programs that will be based in their communities. There will be referrals to the lifestyle weight management programs. In addition to that, projects such as gardening schemes and community walking will be launched at the community level to help the adolescents in exercising.

7.0 Strategies to promote health

7.1 Micro-level strategies

7.1.1 Family Involvement

The family will play a significant role in the reduction of obesity among children. Behavior changes in the adolescents’ lives will involve their whole families. The families will be encouraged to offer support to the adolescents with the aim fostering healthy lifestyles. The families will be required to modify their food habits in a bid to reduce the incidence of obesity among the adolescents

7.1.2 Developmentally appropriate approach

The treatment of the obese adolescents will use parents as the exclusive motivators of lifestyle changes. The treatment programs will be flexible to accommodate the adolescents' inputs. There will be email-based and phone-based programs that will help the adolescents to manage their weight.

7.1.3 Dietary changes

The adolescents will be advised to avoid severe restrictions on the intake of food. They will be encouraged to reduce the portions of their meals and energy intakes. More importantly, they will be encouraged to consume foods with low contents of fat and low glycemic index. The increase in fruit and vegetable intake will be advocated. Furthermore, they adolescents will be guided on how to reduce high –sugar drinks and foods. More importantly, they will be advised to use water as their major beverage.

7.1.4 Increased physical activity

The weight management programs for the obese adolescents will be advocated enhanced physical activity thus thy will include the incidental and planned lifestyles. The weight management programs will aim at reducing sedentary behavior among the obese youths.

7.1.5 Discouraging of sedentary behavior

The adolescents shall be advised to reduce the time they spend playing computer games, watching movies and television, and using electronic media. They will be encouraged to find alternatives to motorized transport such as cycling.

7.1.6 Behavior modification

Modification of behavior plays an instrumental role in the reduction of obesity. Accordingly, the weight management program will focus on building confidence in the adolescents. Further, the adolescents' readiness for change will be assessed after which they will be guided to how to change habits that are associated with physical activity and eating. The adolescents will be assisted to set realistic and attainable goals for their lifestyle changes.

7.2 Macro-level strategies

7.2.1 Community-based partnerships

The campaign against obesity will leverage the power of partnerships. It will generate the influence, momentum and resources' required for the eradication of obesity. Specifically, urban planners, elected officials, and state agencies will play a part in the eradication of obesity (Karnik & Kanekar, 2015).


7.2.2 Social Marketing

Social media will be used to foster positive behaviors in a large number of adolescents within a short duration. The marketing messages will emphasize on the essence of healthy lifestyles (Bleich et al., 2013).

7.2.3 Advancement of specific causes

National champions that have beat obesity will be identified, and they will reenergize the obese adolescents to spread the enthusiasm of leading healthy lifestyles. The champions will communicate and unite the adolescents towards the common goals of reducing the incidence of obesity. Furthermore, the champions will help in raising funds for the campaigns and incentivizing changes among the adolescents (Bray & Bouchard, 2014).

7.2.4 Focus on schools

Schools shall be advised to offer healthy meals to the children. They will be required to educate children concerning obesity and its implications. More importantly, they shall incorporate Physical Education lessons in their classes.  The Senate will be asked to enact sound nutrition policy that will be followed by all the schools. Understandably, the federal policies will help in incorporating all the fitness standards (Cecchini et al., 2010).  

7.2.5 Public Education

There will be public education that will aim at enlightening the adolescents and the public at large about the minimum standards of physical education and fitness testing. Furthermore, the education will shade light on the nutrition standards for vending machines and meals (Gortmaker, 2011).  


8.0 The cost-effectiveness of the health promotion strategies


In this case, cost-effective programs will cost less than $20,000 whereas those that will cost more than $20,000 will be not cost effective. Family Involvement will cost about $8000; hence, this program will be cost effective. The Developmentally appropriate approach will cost about $22,000; hence, the program will not be cost effective. Campaigns for Dietary changes will cost $25,000; hence, the approach will not be cost effective.  Discouraging of sedentary behavior will cost $5,000, and this will make it a cost-effective program. The campaigns for Behavior modification will cost $7,000 thus it will be cost effective. The Community-based partnerships will cost $30,000 thus it will be costly. Social marketing will cost nothing, accordingly it will the most cost-effective program. The advancement of specific causes will incur amounts adding to $35,000 thus; they will not be cost effective. The program that will focus on schools will cost about $11,000; hence, they will be cost effective. Finally, Public Education will incur costs amounting to $100,000 thus it will be the most expensive program.

9.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, advanced practice nurse plays a crucial role in promoting health in the U.S.A. Current evidence regarding adolescent obesity supports risk assessment for the obese adolescent and calls for behavioral changes in them. The health promotion services that will be used to promote health among the obese adolescents include referral opportunities and screenings. The micro-level strategies that will be employed in promoting weight management among the obese adolescents include family involvement, developmentally appropriate approach, dietary changes, increased physical activity, discouragement of sedentary behavior, and behavior modification. The macro-level strategies include community-based partnerships, social marketing, advancement of specific causes, focus on schools, and public education.


Bleich, S. N., Segal, J., Wu, Y., Wilson, R., & Wang, Y. (2013). A systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies. Pediatrics, peds-2013.

Bray, G. A., & Bouchard, C. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of Obesity–Volume 2: Clinical Applications (Vol. 2). CRC Press.

Cecchini, M., Sassi, F., Lauer, J. A., Lee, Y. Y., Guajardo-Barron, V., & Chisholm, D. (2010). Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness. The Lancet, 376(9754), 1775-1784.

Gortmaker, S. L., Swinburn, B. A., Levy, D., Carter, R., Mabry, P. L., Finegood, D. T., ... & Moodie, M. L. (2011). Changing the future of obesity: science, policy, and action. The Lancet, 378(9793), 838-847.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2015). Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med, 2012. 3 (1), 1-7.

Khambalia, A. Z., Dickinson, S., Hardy, L. L., Gill, T., & Baur, L. A. (2012). A synthesis of existing systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of school‐based behavioral interventions for controlling and preventing obesity. Obesity Reviews, 13(3), 214-233.

Lowe, G., Plummer, V., O’Brien, A. P., & Boyd, L. (2012). Time to clarify–the value of advanced practice nursing roles in health care. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(3), 677-685.,. (2016). Childhood Obesity Trends - State Rates. Retrieved 2 March 2016, from,. (2016). Obesity Rates & Trends Overview: The State of Obesity. Retrieved 2 March 2016, from

Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Hall, K. D., McPherson, K., Finegood, D. T., Moodie, M. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2011). The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet, 378(9793), 804-814.

Waters, E., de Silva Sanigorski, A., Hall, B. J., Brown, T., Campbell, K. J., Gao, Y., ... & Summerbell, C. D. (2011). Interventions for preventing obesity in children (review). Cochrane collaboration, (12), 1-212.


Page 1 of 24

Customer Login

Guests Online

We have 5 guests and no members online

Now accepting PayPal

100% plagiarism-free papers
Prices starting at $10/page
Writers are native English speakers
100% satisfaction guarantee
Free revisions according to our Revision Policy
Free title and reference pages
Pleasant system of discounts

Trusted Site Seal

Timely Delivery

Highest Quality

No Plagiarism

We believe there is a difference in doing what we were hired to do and to deliver super heroic client service

Get in touch


About PAW

Professional Academic Writers is  a writing company incorporated in the US and UK with the aim of assisting students in their academic research in essays, research papers, dissertations, thesis and coursework. Driven by the passion to help students succeed in their academics we provide them with custom research services. Our main objective is to create a generation of bright students who understand what they have learnt from their lecturers and teachers and help them excel in their exams.
Phone:  US +1347-560-3972
         UK  +4420 3289-5876
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Customer Testimonials

​Whitney Jones, Ny
Thank you for your quality online academic writing services. The writer who did my paper was professional and smart, I really appreaciate the customer support and i will definately buy my next dissertation from Professional Academic Writers. Cheers!  
​Alex Whites, New Jersey
When i fell sick, I never knew what I could do to complete my MBA. A friend referred me to Professional Academic writers and needless to say, I graduated in 2011 with a distinction.Right now am doing my PhD and they are still assisting me. Kudos for having the best custom writing services I have come across Read More
Disclaimer: Professional academic writers limited does not give express consent or permission for the student to copy or reproduce entirely the work of our writers without proper reference. Professional academic Writers Limited will not be responsible to any third party fo unreference or unauthorized use of its product.


Terms of Service FAQs Discount Policy Refund Policy  How it Works  Beware  Why Choose Us Other Writing Services
Copyright © Professional Academic Writers Inc. 2014 All rights reserved.

Order Menu